br Previous to the inclusion of the HPV vaccine
Previous to the inclusion of the HPV vaccine into the NIP in 2016, a survey on the knowledge and acceptability of HPV infection and vac-cination was performed among 140 mothers of children aged 9–14. Sixty-six mothers (47.0%) were aware of HPV infection, 67 (48.0%) had knowledge about HPV vaccinations, and 72 (51.0%) were aware of the relation of HPV and cervical cancer. Further, most of them (99 mothers - 70.0%) willed to vaccinate their daughters, referring protection against cervical cancer as the main reason for vaccination (83 mothers). Forty-one mothers had unfavourable opinions or strong opposition to vaccinate their daughters, mainly related to concerns of possible side effects (20 mothers), and poor awareness regarding HPV (18 mothers). Higher education level was negatively associated with the willingness to vaccinate their daughters, while knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer was positively associated .
Cervix Vagina Vulva Anus Oropharynx Anus Penis Oropharynx
Combined data for the following countries: China, Japan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Thailand and Taiwan.
Type specific RC estimations: Numerator = single infections + proportional attribution of multiple types; Denominator = HPV DNA positive cancer cases.
Oral cavity and Z-VAD-FMK cancer were not included due to the limited number of cases included in the study.
Finally, once the HPV vaccine was included into the NIP, the main reason of the parents for not vaccinating their daughters with the HPV vaccine was ‘worrying about safety’ (73.5% of respondents - mainly those accessing information on HPV vaccine from media) .
5. Estimation of the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the Korean population
5.1. Potential impact of HPV vaccines in cervical cancer in Korea compared to Eastern Asia
5.2. Potential impact of HPV vaccines in anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers in Eastern Asia
Fig. 5. Relative contribution of types included in HPV vaccines in HPV–related cancers positive for HPV–DNA, in Eastern Asia. ”HPV”: Human papillomavirus; “95% CI”: 95% Confidence Interval Combined data for the following countries: China, Japan, Philippines, The Republic of Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Multiple infections are computed according to a proportional weighting attri-bution. Type specific relative contribution estimations: Numerator = single infections + proportional attribution of multiple types; Denominator = HPV DNA positive cancer cases. Oral cavity and larynx cancer were not included due to the limited number of cases included in the study.. Data sources [9–14]
HPV infection is an important contributor to cancer-related mor-bidity and mortality in the Republic of Korea (11.3% of new infection-related cancer cases and 6.0% of infection-related cancer deaths in 2007). In June 2016, the HPV vaccine (2-valent and 4-valent) was included in the National Immunization Programme in Korea as a 2-dose schedule for girls12 year old. By 2016, 49.9% of the target cohort had received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. The 9-valent vaccine has been li-censed concurrently. The inclusion of HPV vaccines in the Republic of Korea could impact in HPV-related disease, preventing from 70% to 90% of cervical cancer cases, most of anal and vaginal cancers, approximately a quarter of vulvar cancers, a smaller fraction of penile and head and neck cancers and more than 90% of benign genital warts.
However the impact of HPV vaccines on reducing the global burden of HPV-related disease in Korea will greatly depend on HPV vaccine uptake, coverage, availability, and affordability.
The analysis here presented has been supported by Merck & Co., Inc. The authors would like to specifically acknowledge the support by Gonzalo Perez MD; Smita Kothari Ph.D.; Anuj Walia; Hee Yoon Park and Jin Oh Kim, although they had no role in the data collection, analysis, interpretation of the results and submission of the article for publication.
Role of the funding source
The analysis here presented has been supported by Merck & Co., Inc., who had no role in the data collection, analysis, interpretation of the results and submission of the article for publication This work was partially supported by grants from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III-ISCIII (Spanish Government) co funded by FEDER funds/European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) - a way to build Europe (PI18/ 01137, PI17/00123, PI15/01205, CIBERESP (CB06/02/0073), CIBERONC (CB16/12/00401)), With the support of the Secretariat for Universities and Research of the Department of Business and Knowledge of the Government of Catalonia. Grants to support the ac-tivities of research groups (SGR 2017-2019), Grant number 2017SGR1718 and 2017SGR1085.